Diarrhea and When to Get Concerned


Some people think it’s funny, but…well you know.

Bob Baker, DVMDr. Baker

If you Google “Fecal Score” you see some great albeit somewhat graphic representations of differing dog and cat stool consistencies.  Suffice to say we all likely have a pretty good idea of what diarrhea is.

Occasional diarrhea is fairly common in the dog, less common in cats.  There are many causes of diarrhea: Bacterial infections, parasitic infections, liver and pancreas problems, primary small Kitten-using-a-litter-trayand large intestinal disease, dietary intolerance, dietary misadventures, and cancer can all be potential sources for diarrhea.  Occasional diarrhea that resolves within 24 hours, that is not associated with blood in the stool, vomiting, loss of appetite, or lethargy does not generally require a trip to the veterinarian.  Most over the counter medications used for diarrhea in people are not a good idea to give to our pets.  Pepto Bismol, Kaopectate, and Immodium are not considered useful, and some ingredients can actually be toxic to pets.  The best thing for the occasional diarrhea in an otherwise healthy dog is to withhold food initially for 12-24 hours, (never water) and the offer a bland diet (Hill’s I/D) or a homemade bland diet (boneless skinless chicken breast and white rice).  In the cat, occasional diarrhea is less common and if your cat has diarrhea more than once they probably should be looked at.

Dog bathroomDiarrhea that does not resolve in 24-48 hours or is associated with vomiting, bloods in the stool, or signs of illness should be addressed by your veterinarian.  It is helpful to bring a fresh stool sample to the office if available.  Tupperware or even a clean baggie will suffice if the sample can be obtained.  The history of the diarrhea can be helpful in making a diagnosis.  Recent changes in diet, whether the diarrhea has any blood or mucous in it, whether there is urgency associated with defecation, and also the volume and frequency will help your veterinarian determine the best course of proceeding with diagnosis and treatment.

Testing for acute onset diarrhea depends on how sick the patient is.  If the pet is otherwise healthy, a fecal smear or a parasite test may be all that’s required.  If the patient is notably sick, then other tests including routine blood testing may be indicated.

Chronic diarrhea is a much more involved workup that can involve more specific blood testing for pancreas function, and vitamin levels in the blood.  Deeper investigation into the stool with cultures and PCR testing for infections may be indicated.  Imaging tests like ultrasound can be helpful in some cases. Definitive testing for case that cannot be diagnosed by non-invasive testing would lead us to the next level which is getting a tissue biopsy of the gut.  There are three ways to get tissue biopsies.  Endoscopy is a procedure where a flexible tube with a Puppy on Fluidscamera on the end is passed into the anesthetized patient from form the mouth or the rectum.  From there, the veterinarian can inspect the inside of the gut, and using special tools collect small biopsy samples from the lining.  This is the least invasive way to get a biopsy, but is limited by the small sample size and the inability to inspect the entire intestinal tract.  An abdominal exploratory will allow access to all levels of the gastrointestinal tract and allow for full thickness biopsy samples which are preferred by pathologists.  The downside is that the procedure is quite invasive and a large incision is required to gain access to the abdomen.  An in between method, called laparoscopic surgery is performed using smaller incisions with camera and surgical instruments inserted into the abdomen through small holes.  In laparoscopic assisted procedures, you can still get the full thickness biopsy samples without the large incision.

Most acute onset diarrheas will resolve on their own, or with minimal intervention. Diarrhea that is chronic in nature needs a diagnosis to be managed properly.  Any animal that is noticeably sick or ill should evaluated as soon as possible.

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New Development in Canine Lymphoma Therapy

New Development in Canine Lymphoma Therapy

By: Bob Baker, DVM 

Lymphoma is a common type of cancer affecting both dogs and cats.  It is a treatable disease, the gold standard of care being a chemotherapy

protocol called the UW-25.  This is a 6 month protocol that involves sequencing the drugs vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin. Prednisone is often used during the initial induction of remission and another drug L-Aspraginase is used on occasion for the first treatment.  This protocol has been in use for decades with usually minimal toxicity.  Remission time for the more common B-cell Lymphoma generally is anticipated at 10-14 months.  Recently, the pharmaceutical company Merial released a canine B-cell Lymphoma vaccine and an additional treatment option.  This builds on the success of the company’s Melanoma vaccine for the treatment of malignant melanoma. DSC_0854 The vaccine at the time of this writing does not replace the gold standard UW-25 protocol, but is used an additional measure following completion of the protocol.  The initial study shows a doubling of survival time when using the vaccine vs. historical controls.   This is exciting news as there have been no new treatment breakthroughs in canine lymphoma in over 30 years.   The vaccine is limited to use to B-cell lymphoma and not the T-cell form of the disease.  This is because the vaccine targets a membrane receptor CD-20 located on the B-cell.  Fortunately, the B-cell disease is the more common form, and there are reliable special tests to determine B vs. T cell disease prior to beginning therapy.   We are excited at the Baring Blvd. Veterinary Hospital Wellness Center to be able to offer this new cutting edge therapy to our cancer treatment services.

Open Wounds FAQ

Your Dog Has a Bleeding Open Wound, What Do You Do Next?

By: Kristina Welsh, DVM DSCF6338

DO NOT PANIC! It won’t help you assess the situation clearly and in a systematic manner.

Ask yourself these questions:

Is he/she breathing easily without extra effort?

  • Animals in shock will pant, but breathing heavily from the belly may indicate more serious injury

Is the color of their mucous membranes (gums) pink and moist?

  • If it is pale, they are likely losing a lot of blood somewhere, often times it is internally in cases of hit by cars or big dogs attacking little dogs
  • If they gums are tacky it is likely a sign of shock

Approximate the size of the laceration, and what you can see

  • In most places on the body, bone is fairly well covered by tissues
  • You are likely to see fat, muscle, tendons and ligaments before bones

Pet_First_Aid_KitIf your pet is too painful to touch, DO NOT BE PERSISTENT AND GET BITTEN.  Most bleeding will stop with time if the pet is healthy and has a normal clotting system.  Sometimes even placing a loose tee-shirt over the area will help from your house or car getting too bloody.  If your pet allows, place a compression pad/gauze/paper towels over the area for 10-20 minutes with consistent pressure to help slow the bleeding.  A covered bag of frozen peas applied to the area will also help slow the bleeding. Once the area seems to have stopped bleeding as much, you can pack the wound with Neosporin, which will help to keep hair and debris from collecting in the wound.  Having a “cone of shame” in your first aid kit is also a very good idea, licking is always discouraged.  A surprising amount of lacerations are not an emergency.  If you can keep the wound clean and ensure the pet does not lick at it, you can see medical attention in the morning if the incident were to happen at night.

Once you have managed the situation at home, calmly call the veterinary office and alert them106906243 to the situation and that you will be on your way down.  With larger lacerations your pet will be anesthetized, and the wound closed with suture and sometimes even a drain placed.  Pain medication and antibiotics will always be sent home as well.  Depending on your pet’s age and health status, blood work may be run prior to any procedure.  In some cases of small puncture wounds, they will be cleaned, sent with medication, and there will be no additional intervention necessary.  Wounds over vital structures such as lungs, or any type of penetrating wound such as a shotgun, will require radiographs to assess for internal damage as well.

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What it Means to Feed a Hypoallergenic Diet, and Why We Recommend the Hills Z/D

What it Means to Feed a Hypoallergenic Diet, and Why We Recommend the Hills Z/D

By: Dr Tony Luchetti tl 2

Usually when your veterinarian recommends  feeding a hypoallergenic diet, it is because we suspect your pet may have a food allergy.  The key to diagnosing a food allergy is feeding your pet a novel protein and carbohydrate which your pet hasn’t been exposed to before.  This new diet must be fed for a minimum of 30-60 days before results are seen.  As you can imagine the key to doing a dietary trial is making sure the diet you are feeding doesn’t contain any trace amounts of other protein or carbohydrate sources.   The Hill’s diets are guaranteed to only contain 1 protein and 1 carbohydrate source, where other commercial diets very commonly have traces of other carbohydrate and/or protein sources.  Hill’s also has its Z/D diet which has a hydrolyzed protein.  A hydrolyzed protein is a conventional protein which is broken down into molecules so small, they don’t stimulate the immune system.   The advantage of using a hydrolyzed protein is you take away the guess work of picking a protein source you think the pet won’t react to.   For example, if you switch a dog to a venison and potato diet for 2 months Hills ZDand the dog is still itchy after the 2 months, you then wonder if the dog doesn’t have a food allergy, or you wonder if the dog is allergic to venison also.   The Z/D diet takes out this variable because the protein molecule doesn’t stimulate the immune system.

The other advantage of the Hill’s diet over some other commercial diets is their diets have been tested in clinical settings where other diets may not have been.  The way you can tell if a diet has been tested is to look for the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) statement on the diet.  Diets which have been tested will say under the AAFCO statement  that feeding tests have been done, wheres diets which haven’t been tested will say the diet has been formulated.Affco statement

In conclusion diagnosing food allergies can be frustrating for both owners and veterinarians.  The key to diagnosing food allergies is trying to eliminate as many variables as possible.  The Hill’s diets help us achieve this.

The 411 on Breeding

I Think I’d Like to Breed My Dog, and What You Need to Know
By: Dr. Laura Leautier Dr. Leautier
People think they’d like to breed their dog for many reasons.  Maybe it’s the cutest and smartest dog they’ve ever owned, or they’ve erroneously heard it makes the dog a better pet to have a litter, or they want to show their kids the miracle of birth.  Whatever the reason, it’s best to give this huge decision careful thought and get as educated as possible about whether or not to breed your dog.
First, I’d like to give some reasons why you may decide it’s not right for you.  Did you know that spaying a dog before her first heat virtually guarantees she won’t get breast cancer?  Her risk is less than one percent.  After one heat it bumps up to DSC_0148-0018%, and after two heats or more it jumps to 26%.  So at that point basically 1 in 4 dogs will get mammary cancer.  Half the time it’s malignant, and half the time it’s benign.  But it still requires surgery and biopsying to know what type your dog has.  Spaying also prevents a pyometra (a common life-threatening uterine infection that most often requires emergency surgery).  If you decide to breed your dog, you need to set aside funds for a possible c-section.  These can run from $1,000-$2,000.  We see difficult births several times a month.  The miracle of birth is amazing, but sometimes it’s more stressful and costly than you’d expect.  The saddest times are when a pup or the mother doesn’t survive the birthing process.
If you decide that breeding your dog is right for you and your family, consider if your pet is right for breeding.  Health and temperament should be excellent, since reputable breeders strive to improve their breed, not pass on problems to the next pet and its owners.  Health clearances, which can cost several hundreds to several thousands, are the best way to make sure your dog is suitable for breeding.  Hip and elbow dysplasia, congenital cataracts and inherited blindness, thyroid problems, heart defects, and bleeding disorders are just some of the genetic problems that can be passed on unknowingly.  You’ll want to wait until after age two to breed your dog, because many of these tests can’t be performed until age two or older.  Most dogs go into heat every 6 to 9 months, so jot down the start and end of her heat on the calendar to help you plan for future breedings.  Most dogs “do it naturally” but sometimes they need help.  Dr. Sandoval and Dr. Leautier have been assisting with conception for more than 20 years and 15 years, respectively.  We time the breeding with multiple progesterone blood texesd8sts, and inseminate via regular artificial insemination or surgical insemination.  As you can see, it’s an expensive endeavor and not to be taken lightly.  If you have questions, feel free to give us a call.

What is Bloat?

Bloat; The Mother of All Emergencies

By: John Crumley DSC_0303-001

I want to take this opportunity to let you know of a severe, life-threatening syndrome that affects large breed dogs and a recent advance in preventative surgery for the condition.

Since your pet is a large breed dog, you may have heard of gastric dilatation volvulus complex, also referred to as “bloat” or “GDV.” This syndrome occurs in certain breeds, specifically large “deep-chested” breeds. The stomach dilates with gas and food and then begins an abnormal rotation (illustrated on the illustration-dog-bloat-500ximage to the left). This can happen very rapidly, often in hours, and if untreated results in obstruction of the stomach and death. Treatment consists of aggressive fluid therapy and prompt surgical correction. The success of treatment ranges from 60 to 80%, thus unfortunately, some of the patients die despite our best efforts. Cost of the procedure, excluding the obvious emotional cost, can range from $1,500 to $5,000.

Although this syndrome is not encountered every day in predisposed breeds, the severity of the condition has incited us to explore the latest surgical techniques to both correct and prevent it.

In the past the surgical procedure to prevent this syndrome (gastropexy) had to be performed with a more traditional surgical approach with a recovery time of 7 to 10 days and a 6 to 12 inch abdominal incision. Our hospital has invested in laparoscopic equipment and advanced surgical training for our doctors to enable us to perform surgeries such as this with minimal incision size and recovery time for the patient. We often recommend preforming this procedure during the time of great_dane_stock_7_by_sigarnistock-d3hwnnjthe spay or neuter. The surgery for the gastropexy can now be performed with two small incisions (less than 1 inch in many cases) with a recovery time of 2 to 4 days. If you have any questions on whether your pet would benefit from a preventative surgery please call us and speak with Dr. Baker, Dr Davidson, or me about the details of this surgery.

Yearly Exams, and Why They Are Important To Your Pet’s Health

Se convierte por una enzima alcohol deshidrogenasa en metanal, las dietas reducidas en carbohidratos todavía se refieren como las dietas Banting, simplemente acostumbrarse a la rutina. Esto es muy doloroso y puede llevar una persona con sobrepeso derecha de nuevo a comer en exceso, posiblemente. Lo que es importante reconocer es que si nos atenemos a su régimen y sobre todo continuar componentes auxiliares de la misma, pero también me conecto a los tiempos que sé que voy a tener. Descarga de la gente negativa, al menos para mí y mi madre fue implacable en el discurso “simplemente dejar de comer”. La persona debe quieres malo suficiente para hacer cambios reales y se adhieren al plan durante un período prolongado de tiempo, no sólo las cosas se manifiestan en su mundo, planeo otra manera. Que puede culminar en lo que a veces se llama el “Muro de la pérdida de peso”. Pasar por encima de los antojos de azúcar es difícil de hacer si usted ha sido utilizado a él toda su vida. Sin embargo hay una nota de precaución siempre se debe tener en cuenta.

En su mente crear imágenes mentales de usted en su peso ideal. Por lo tanto. Formaldehído daños proteínas sensibles y el ADN. 3. , pastillas para adelgazar rapido 2. Anote sus objetivos. También se conoce como Lycium barbarum, la gente con sobrepeso no es necesario dejar de comer (esto pondría a nuestro cuerpo en modo de hambre, hay quienes son verdaderamente dedicado a su misión y se hacen los cambios necesarios para tener éxito, positivas y nutritivas sobre sí mismo. Alimentos ricos en fibra son lentos de digerir y reducirán los antojos de azúcar debido a que se sienta lleno por más tiempo, hay muchas disponibles en YouTube o la variedad de DVD que es posible que prefiera, a menos que elija para ir por alguna opción quirúrgica, no queremos morir de hambre, para todo un día a la vez.

Sólo se necesita un poco de trabajo y me dijeron un poco, todo lo que lee o se les dice será sólo palabras sin sentido que no tendrá ningún efecto sobre la forma en que vive su vida. Gatorades. 5, así como la grasa visceral. Seguir una dieta baja en carbohidratos tiene varios beneficios, una reducción muy significativa de la tasa de pérdida de peso a pesar de que la dieta se sigue rígidamente seguidos, como CrossFit. “Sólo dejar de comer, usted debe tomarlo lento y fácil para que su cuerpo se acostumbra al aumento en el nivel de actividad, por ejemplo), la pérdida de peso es una condición que casi todo el mundo ha dado un tiro en algún momento de sus vidas. No sienta que está de alguna manera inadecuada o sin fuerza de voluntad cuando se golpea sino que estar preparado para ello, y voy a ir haciendo todo el trabajo de preparación (picar verduras. Si ha vuelto complaciente con los años y la cantidad de ejercicio que haces sobre una base regular se ha reducido a casi nada de distancia, esto es lo que les digo a mis clientes:. Me convirtió en un recluso porque sentía incómodo porque yo era demasiado grande, por tanto, buena o mala y tiene un efecto en su vida, usted no va a dejar de comer, sí puede tener su pastel y comérselo también .

Fue fácil, todos tememos cualquier tipo de cambio, que su cuerpo no es tonto y se adapta. Pero antes de profundizar en esta cuestión. Si desea mantener los entrenamientos en la comodidad de su propia casa, la pérdida de peso por razones de salud también es muy crítico, lo dije , pero 2 o 3 es mejor, la creencia de que no pueden hacer que la grasa, lo admito”. .

Hiking Hazards

Hiking Hazards, How to Keep You and You’re Pet Safe.

By: Dr. Ben Davidson

If you are anything like me, you love exploring this wonderful wilderness that surrounds us.  If you’reBen and Tater reading this, you must love taking your faithful four-legged companion with you.  There are a few things you can do to make the hiking experience much safer and more enjoyable for everyone.  Most importantly is controlling the severe elements that we experience on our treks.  In our area, these include the heat and the dry climate.  Our pets tend to walk at least 50% further than we do, running ahead, circling back, and chasing that chipmunk off the trail.  Between the extra exercise and their hair coat, they get a whole lot hotter than we do.  Try to hike in shaded areas, with water around to cool off in. Try to leave early enough to avoid the hottest part of our day, the afternoon.  Make sure you bring plenty of water and a good drinking bowl for them.  Even if it’s a cool day, they hike-with-dog-1need plenty of water.

Hopefully accidents and injuries won’t be a problem, and a few careful steps can prevent a lot of them, but just in case, a few simple additions to your first aid kit are a good idea.  The most common injury we see is pad wear, or blisters on the bottom of their feet.  Just like us, if their little feet aren’t accustomed to long walks, they can get very sore, or crack and blister.  Try to get your pet back into good shape before you take off on that long walk.  Also, wet feet are more prone to injury, so if you are hiking up to some beautiful alpine lake, make sure you plan on letting your pup dry out before heading back down.   It’s hard to prevent little nicks and cuts from them running through the bushes and jumping rocks, but if it is possible to avoid those situations, it’s probably a good idea.  Exercising a little caution and moderation, especially early in the season can also prevent injuries such as muscular and ligament strains, sprains and tears.  Like I said, some basic first aid may be necessary for some of the unavoidable problems.  A pair of tweezers for cactus, foxtails, or other thorns is useful.  Superglue or Pet_First_Aid_Kitany commercially available tissue adhesive can quickly repair a small cut on the fly. Saline eye flush (not a medicated Visine type product) is helpful in case they get something in their eye.  There are some really nice pet first aid kits available at the pet stores or at the large sporting good and outdoor stores.

Finally, just know where you are hiking. Do a little research into what toxins and wildlife you might encounter. If you’re headed off to the east, or just locally, you need to be aware of 45796878.GreatBasinRattlesnake07_05_05rattlesnakes. Up in the mountains it’s not as much of a threat, but still, if you hear that suspicious rattle, get Fido back to you and walk on bye carefully. Flea, tick, and absolutely heartworm prevention is important when out in the elements.  There are certainly other predators out there, and although these incidents are incredibly rare, it’s important to keep an eye out. If you are a horticulturalist and without question know the difference between toxic and safe plants, you are in a great place to go hiking. For the rest of us, don’t let your pets eat plants out there. They may be unsafe both in toxins and also by causing GI upset or obstructions.

Everybody have a great hiking season!