Tag Archives: diarrhea

Diarrhea and When to Get Concerned

Diarrhea

Some people think it’s funny, but…well you know.

Bob Baker, DVMDr. Baker

If you Google “Fecal Score” you see some great albeit somewhat graphic representations of differing dog and cat stool consistencies.  Suffice to say we all likely have a pretty good idea of what diarrhea is.

Occasional diarrhea is fairly common in the dog, less common in cats.  There are many causes of diarrhea: Bacterial infections, parasitic infections, liver and pancreas problems, primary small Kitten-using-a-litter-trayand large intestinal disease, dietary intolerance, dietary misadventures, and cancer can all be potential sources for diarrhea.  Occasional diarrhea that resolves within 24 hours, that is not associated with blood in the stool, vomiting, loss of appetite, or lethargy does not generally require a trip to the veterinarian.  Most over the counter medications used for diarrhea in people are not a good idea to give to our pets.  Pepto Bismol, Kaopectate, and Immodium are not considered useful, and some ingredients can actually be toxic to pets.  The best thing for the occasional diarrhea in an otherwise healthy dog is to withhold food initially for 12-24 hours, (never water) and the offer a bland diet (Hill’s I/D) or a homemade bland diet (boneless skinless chicken breast and white rice).  In the cat, occasional diarrhea is less common and if your cat has diarrhea more than once they probably should be looked at.

Dog bathroomDiarrhea that does not resolve in 24-48 hours or is associated with vomiting, bloods in the stool, or signs of illness should be addressed by your veterinarian.  It is helpful to bring a fresh stool sample to the office if available.  Tupperware or even a clean baggie will suffice if the sample can be obtained.  The history of the diarrhea can be helpful in making a diagnosis.  Recent changes in diet, whether the diarrhea has any blood or mucous in it, whether there is urgency associated with defecation, and also the volume and frequency will help your veterinarian determine the best course of proceeding with diagnosis and treatment.

Testing for acute onset diarrhea depends on how sick the patient is.  If the pet is otherwise healthy, a fecal smear or a parasite test may be all that’s required.  If the patient is notably sick, then other tests including routine blood testing may be indicated.

Chronic diarrhea is a much more involved workup that can involve more specific blood testing for pancreas function, and vitamin levels in the blood.  Deeper investigation into the stool with cultures and PCR testing for infections may be indicated.  Imaging tests like ultrasound can be helpful in some cases. Definitive testing for case that cannot be diagnosed by non-invasive testing would lead us to the next level which is getting a tissue biopsy of the gut.  There are three ways to get tissue biopsies.  Endoscopy is a procedure where a flexible tube with a Puppy on Fluidscamera on the end is passed into the anesthetized patient from form the mouth or the rectum.  From there, the veterinarian can inspect the inside of the gut, and using special tools collect small biopsy samples from the lining.  This is the least invasive way to get a biopsy, but is limited by the small sample size and the inability to inspect the entire intestinal tract.  An abdominal exploratory will allow access to all levels of the gastrointestinal tract and allow for full thickness biopsy samples which are preferred by pathologists.  The downside is that the procedure is quite invasive and a large incision is required to gain access to the abdomen.  An in between method, called laparoscopic surgery is performed using smaller incisions with camera and surgical instruments inserted into the abdomen through small holes.  In laparoscopic assisted procedures, you can still get the full thickness biopsy samples without the large incision.

Most acute onset diarrheas will resolve on their own, or with minimal intervention. Diarrhea that is chronic in nature needs a diagnosis to be managed properly.  Any animal that is noticeably sick or ill should evaluated as soon as possible.

Parvovirus

What is Parvovirus?

By: Dr. John Crumley DSC_0303-001

Parvoviruses are a large group with almost every mammal species (including humans) seems to have its own parvovirus. Fortunately, each virus is specific for which animal species it can infect (i.e. the canine parvovirus will not infect people). However, the canine parvovirus will affect most members of the dog family (wolves, coyotes, and foxes).

While the parvoviruses of other species have been well known for decades, the canine parvovirus is a relative newcomer. The original canine parvovirus, discovered in 1967, lead to a series of infections in the 1970’s and unfortunately still to this day.

Golden Retriever puppyThe most common form of the virus is called CPV-2b, but there is a new particularly virulent strain of parvovirus (CPV-2c) which is rapidly becoming the second most common form of canine parvovirus. Fortunately, currently available vaccines cover all variants of canine parvovirus including CPV-2c, as do all the commercially available diagnostic test kits.

After a 3-7 day incubation period, the disease manifests itself with vomiting, diarrhea, and poor appetite. If untreated, death from dehydration and sepsis is most commonly the end result. If treated with aggressive care, up to 80% of patients will survive and go on to lead normal lives after infection. Since the treatment is extensive, often times requiring isolation in a veterinary hospital for many days, we must be prepared for significant expense of treatment (often times over $1,000).

Treatment for parvovirus infection centers on supportive care. This means that the clinical problems that come up in the course of the infection are addressed individually with the goal of keeping the patient alive long enough for an immune response to generate. We do not have effective antiviral drugs and must rely on the patient’s immune system for cure. Puppy on Fluids Intravenous fluids, anti-nausea medication, anti-diarrhea medication, antibiotics, and pain medication are paramount if the pet is to survive infection.

The sad truth of canine parvovirus is that we could eradicate it with simple vaccination as we have with other terrible diseases (ever heard of small pox? ) Vaccination must be done at an early age (as early as 6-7 weeks of age), then repeated every 3-4 weeks until the pet is 16 weeks of age, then every 1-3 years into adulthood.

The difficultly lies in the robust nature of the virus; it can live on surfaces (pavement, grass, dirt, bottom of shoes and the SAMSUNGlike) for months to years. A sick pet’s feces and/or vomit can spread thousands to millions of viral particles into the environment. If an unvaccinated, or undervaccinated, dog sniffs or licks up viral particles, they can become infected.

So, if you have a new puppy, make sure you get him or her vaccinated at the correct times with your veterinarian and avoid areas where dogs congregate until the vaccine series is finished.

Christmas is Almost Upon us! Make Sure You Know What to Watch for Around the House !

Holiday Pet Hazards

By: Bob Baker,DVM Dr. Baker

The Holiday season brings out many potential problems for your pet.

Chocolate exposure and ingestion can cause anything from mild stomach upset to life threatening medical emergencies. If you are giving chocolate as a gift, it is best it does not get put under the tree. The nose of a dog will be able to sniff through the package and gain access to the goodies.

Sugar free treats made with an artificial sweetener called Xylitol can cause liver failure in the dog, Picture 217but is safe for humans. Grapes and raisins can cause kidney failure in dogs. Macadamia nuts are also toxic to dogs. Some dogs will like the taste of eggnog, and the optional alcohol can be a real problem.

Other dietary misadventures with bones, fatty leftovers, candy etc. can cause significant gastrointestinal upset. Bones can cause obstruction and require surgery, there can be an association of high fat foods and pancreatitis that can be life threatening.

Decorative plants such as poinsettias, holly, mistletoe and lilies can cause mild to severe gastrointestinal upset and holly mistletoe_dogand mistletoe can cause rhythm disturbances in the heart.

Tree tinsel and gift wrapping ribbon can be very entertaining to a curious cat, unfortunately cats can swallow these objects creating a linear foreign body which are incredibly dangerous. They cause a plication (accordion movement) of the intestine on itself and can saw right through multiple areas of intestine. It is very important your cat be seen as soon as possible if you suspect a linear foreign body. People will sometimes put a bow or ribbon around an animals neck which if equipped with a breakaway safety feature could result in choking

The Christmas tree itself can be a hazard, the water in the base can be a source of bacteria or can contain toxic substances to maintain freshness of the tree . We have also seen the curious pet try to climb the tree causing it to fall.

dog-christmas-lights 1Christmas lights have their associated electrical cords are another hazard. Chewing electrical cords can cause painful oral burns.

If you have any questions, just give us a call at (775) 358-6880.

Happy Holidays !

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‘The Circle’ is a movie genre Drama, was released in April 27, 2017. James Ponsoldt was directed this movie and starring by Emma Watson. This movie tell story about A young tech worker takes a job at a powerful Internet corporation, quickly rises up the company’s ranks, and soon finds herself in a perilous situation concerning privacy, surveillance and freedom. She comes to learn that her decisions and actions will determine the future of humanity.

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