Vaccines,What are the Risks and Benefits to Your Pets.
As a veterinarian I am faced with questions about vaccinations every day, what are the risks? what are the benefits? To say that vaccines are safe is true, however there are adverse effects associated with vaccination. While extremely rare, anaphylactic allergic reactions can occur and must be dealt with immediately. Other allergic reactions, fever, vomiting, facial swelling occur on occasion, but are still rare. The old feline vaccinations were associated with development of an injection site sarcoma; this occurred more commonly in patients with a genetic predisposition to cancer. So yes there are some risks associated with vaccination. When it comes to vaccination, we have to assess the relative risk of vaccination vs. the risk of the disease. Rabies vaccine however is always indicated as it is state law to vaccinate dogs and cats. Most pets however, do not have the social risk factors of humans, there are some such as those that go to groomers, boarding kennels, and day care. These pets have risk factors more like us, where we go to work, school, shopping; where we interact with others that may or may not be vaccinated or be incubating or spreading a contagious disease.
When an animal or person is vaccinated, most will form antibodies to the false infection that will protect from the real infection when the subject is exposed to the pathogen. There are however, some individuals that are genetic non-responders, meaning they cannot form antibodies to the vaccine. These are the individuals that get sick despite vaccination. This happens in canine parvovirus on occasion because the dog, no matter how many times they have been vaccinated, simply cannot respond to the presented antigen. So how do we protect these “non-responders” in the population, along with the individuals that cannot receive vaccines because of illness, immunocompromise, or allergies. The key is a concept called herd immunity, and it derives from infectious disease management mostly in the cattle and dairy industry. The more individuals that are vaccinated, the more protected the herd, including those that cannot be vaccinated or are non-responders. The more individuals that do not receive the vaccine, the more likely the herd immunity will fail and an outbreak will occur.
Measles is a virus that belongs to a group of viruses called Morbillivirus. It evolved from a cattle virus called Rinderpest around 1100-1200 A.D. When the measles virus first adapted to infect humans, it had a high mortality rate, killing up to 60% of those infected. Over time, the virus (and us) have changed to be less fatal, but still is very infective. It is interesting to note that Rinderpest, the cattle morbillivirus, has been eradicated by a global vaccination protocol, similar to what we did with the Smallpox virus in humans, and almost did with the Polio virus until the Taliban in the tribal areas of Pakistan started shooting the vaccinators. The canine morbillivirus causes a disease called distemper, which most veterinarians in practice today will never see because enough people continue to give their dogs the vaccine to keep herd immunity up and individuals protected by a highly safe and effective vaccine.
The Godfather (1972) HD
|Director||:||Francis Ford Coppola.|
|Producer||:||Albert S. Ruddy.|
|Release||:||March 14, 1972|
|Country||:||United States of America.|
|Production Company||:||Paramount Pictures, Alfran Productions.|
|Language||:||English, Italiano, Latin.|
Movie ‘The Godfather’ was released in March 14, 1972 in genre Drama. Francis Ford Coppola was directed this movie and starring by Marlon Brando. This movie tell story about Spanning the years 1945 to 1955, a chronicle of the fictional Italian-American Corleone crime family. When organized crime family patriarch, Vito Corleone barely survives an attempt on his life, his youngest son, Michael steps in to take care of the would-be killers, launching a campaign of bloody revenge.
Do not miss to Watch movie The Godfather (1972) Online for free with your family. only 2 step you can Watch or download this movie with high quality video. Come and join us! because very much movie can you watch free streaming.
trailer film The Godfather, The Godfather 1972 live streaming film, The Godfather 1972 English Full Episodes Watch Online, Watch The Godfather 1972 Online Megashare, watch full The Godfather film online, The Godfather 1972 Full Episodes Watch Online, watch film The Godfather 1972 now, live streaming film The Godfather 1972, The Godfather 1972 English Episode, Watch The Godfather 1972 Online Viooz, Watch The Godfather 1972 Online Free Putlocker, The Godfather 1972 Watch Online, Watch The Godfather 1972 Online Free putlocker, Watch The Godfather 1972 Online Free megashare, download full movie The Godfather, Watch The Godfather 1972 Online Free Viooz, The Godfather 1972 Full Episodes Online, The Godfather 1972 Episodes Watch Online, The Godfather 1972 English Full Episodes Free Download, watch The Godfather movie online now, trailer movie The Godfather, film The Godfather 1972 online, watch The Godfather 1972 film online now, The Godfather 1972 English Full Episodes Download, The Godfather movie, movie The Godfather, The Godfather 1972 For Free online, download The Godfather movie now, The Godfather 1972 English Episodes, The Godfather 1972 HD English Full Episodes Download, The Godfather 1972 English Episodes Free Watch Online, Watch The Godfather 1972 Online Putlocker, The Godfather 1972 Full Episode, watch full The Godfather 1972 film, The Godfather 1972 Episodes Online, The Godfather 1972 English Full Episodes Online Free Download, The Godfather 1972 Online Free Megashare, Watch The Godfather 1972 Online Free, film The Godfather 1972 download, The Godfather 1972 For Free Online, The Godfather 1972 HD Full Episodes Online.
Questione di karma (2017) HD
|Writer||:||Edoardo Falcone, Marco Martani.|
|Release||:||March 9, 2017|
|Production Company||:||Rai Cinema, Wildside.|
Movie ‘Questione di karma’ was released in March 9, 2017 in genre Comedy. Edoardo Falcone was directed this movie and starring by Fabio De Luigi. This movie tell story about Giacomo befriends a man, believing that he is the reincarnation of his dead father.
Do not miss to Watch movie Questione di karma (2017) Online for free with your family. only 2 step you can Watch or download this movie with high quality video. Come and join us! because very much movie can you watch free streaming.
Questione di karma 2017 English Full Episodes Watch Online
film Questione di karma 2017 streaming
movie Questione di karma
download movie Questione di karma 2017
Questione di karma film
live streaming film Questione di karma online
watch film Questione di karma 2017 now
Questione di karma 2017 Full Episodes Online
Questione di karma 2017 For Free online
Watch Questione di karma 2017 Online Free megashare
Questione di karma movie
watch Questione di karma 2017 film now
Questione di karma 2017 Watch Online
Watch Questione di karma 2017 Online Megashare
Watch Questione di karma 2017 Online Putlocker
Questione di karma 2017 English Episodes
Questione di karma 2017 English Full Episodes Online Free Download
streaming Questione di karma 2017
Watch Questione di karma 2017 Online Free Viooz
live streaming movie Questione di karma online
Questione di karma 2017 Full Episode
download film Questione di karma now
streaming movie Questione di karma
Questione di karma 2017 Episodes Watch Online
Questione di karma 2017 English Episodes Free Watch Online
Questione di karma 2017 For Free Online
Watch Questione di karma 2017 Online Free
watch Questione di karma movie now
Watch Questione di karma 2017 Online Free Putlocker
Questione di karma 2017 English Full Episodes Free Download
Questione di karma 2017 HD Full Episodes Online
download film Questione di karma 2017
Questione di karma 2017 HD English Full Episodes Download
film Questione di karma
Questione di karma 2017 English Episode
watch full movie Questione di karma 2017 online
Watch Questione di karma 2017 Online Free putlocker
Questione di karma 2017 Full Episodes Watch Online
Questione di karma 2017 English Full Episodes Download
Questione di karma 2017 Online Free Megashare
streaming Questione di karma 2017 film
Questione di karma 2017 Episodes Online
Watch Questione di karma 2017 Online Viooz
By: Sara Hogle DVM
There are several important factors to consider when choosing a specific dog breed or mixed breed individual for your family. In general, you will want to consider your own lifestyle, personality, and specific desires for dog behavior, personality, and maintenance characteristics. Selecting your canine friend is an important long term decision for you and your family so it pays to spend some time researching to ensure you come to the right decision.
When you imagine the type of dog you picture yourself living with for the next 10-20 years the dog’s breed will play an important role in this decision, but many other factors are important to consider. A particular breed will ensure certain qualities in your dog (coat length and grooming requirements, size, often energy level, trainability, protectiveness, temperature/climate tolerance, and predisposition to certain medical problems) but does not automatically ensure that you will end up with the “perfect dog” for you. Spending some time researching the history of your dog’s family line, training and socializing your dog, and investing in your dog’s preventative care and medical needs through your veterinarian will provide you both with the best opportunity for a long happy, fulfilling life together.
A list of important factors to consider when selecting a canine companion:
- Energy level (some dogs are non-stop sprinters vs. more of a couch potato)
- How much time will you be able to spend exercising your dog each day?
- How often will you be able to play with your dog?
- How affectionate (“clingy”) do you want your dog to be?
- Do you have any other pets in the household that your dog will need to get along with?
- How trainable do you want your new dog to be?
- Some easier to train dog breeds- Australian shepherds, Border collie, Lab, Golden retriever, Poodles, Papillion
- How protective do you want your new dog to be?
- How much maintenance/grooming can you provide and how much shedding can you tolerate?
- Does your dog need to be able to tolerate cold, hot, or variable temperatures/climates based on where you live?
- Is it important that your dog be good with children?
- Is affordability an issue for you? E.g. initial cost of purchase, food, grooming costs, potential for health care/medical issues in the future.
- For example some breed predilections for hip dysplasia include German shepherds, Rottweiler,Labradorretrievers, Golden retrievers
- Will your dog be kept inside, outside, or a bit of both? (certain breeds just don’t tolerate exposure outside well at all).
- What is your level of experience with dogs? (certain breeds are not recommended for 1st time dog owners).
- What was the breed originally bred for? (some of those instincts may remain; for example some breeds were bred for digging/rooting out rodents and will likely do so in your flower garden as well).
- Do you have any allergies to dogs? Some “hypoallergenic breeds” include: poodles, Bichon Frise, etc.
- How vocal of a dog do you prefer? Some are more talkative including: Beagles, Huskies, German Shepherd dogs.